Vehicular Communication Environments
Book chapter, 2016
Communication to and between road vehicles (cars, truck, buses, trains, etc.) are of growing interest. This is partly due to the attractive services that cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITSs) provides, mainly in the areas of traffic safety and traffic efficiency. An enabler for C-ITS is wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, collectively referred to as vehicle-to-X (V2X) communication. Another driver is the advent of moving networks in the context of 5th generation (5G) systems. Moving networks includes the use of vehicles as mobile or nomadic base station (BS), with the purpose of providing connectivity to both vehicle passengers and to users outside the vehicle. In this chapter, we will discuss key issues in V2X communication: propagation, antennas, and physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layer algorithms. Measurements, characterisation, and modelling of radio channel are reported for road, railway, and special environments in Sections 4.1.1, 4.1.2, and 4.1.3, respectively. Antennas are discussed in Section 4.2, while PHY and MAC layers are treated in Section 4.3.