A Three Phase Conjugated Heat Transfer Solver Applied To Additive Manufacturing
Paper in proceedings, 2019

Additive manufacturing (AM) is growing rapidly in the industry and is dependent on a number of process parameters and complex multiphysics. In the process, metal powder is melted by a laser beam forming a metal structure. Optimization of the process is very hard and is currently dependent on simple melt pool models. Therefore, there is a lot of trial and error involved in finding a robust AM process. To increase the understanding of the process we propose a physical and CFD-based melt pool model. The model includes a three phase conjugated heat transfer transfer solver, where the gas and melted solid (fluid) are treated with the volume-of-fluid method. To accurately capture the flow of the fluid a temperature dependent rheology model is employed. The phase transition occurs over a small temperature span, in which affected cells are transferred to the other phase solver. Finally, a ray trace based heat source model is used to simulate how an array of powder particles on a substrate are partially melted by a laser beam and the final solidified structure is formed.

phase transition

immersed boundary

Conjugated heat transfer

three phase flow



Andreas Mark

Chalmers, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Fluid Dynamics

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre

Johan Göhl

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre

Simon Ingelsten

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Engineering Materials

Tomas Johnson

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre

Fredrik Edelvik

Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre

10 th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Computational Mathematics

Chemical Process Engineering

Metallurgy and Metallic Materials

Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics

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