Macroscopic interpretation of nano-scale scattering data in clay
Journal article, 2019
The potential of X-ray scattering measurements for monitoring changes on the nano-scale in fine-grained materials in their natural wet state is demonstrated with a series of feasibility tests on well-controlled, kaolin samples, i.e. water content, pH and loading history. The results indicate that subtle changes on the nanometric scale, especially the particle orientations, can be measured with high fidelity using a standard laboratory Small and Wide angle X-ray Scattering instrument. This opens up possibilities for future in-situ loading tests with simultaneous monitoring of the evolving changes of the fabric in fine-grained soils.