Spooky effect in optimal OSPA estimation and how GOSPA solves it
Paper in proceedings, 2019

In this paper, we show the spooky effect at a distance that arises in optimal estimation of multiple targets with the optimal sub-pattern assignment (OSPA) metric. This effect refers to the fact that if we have several independent potential targets at distant locations, a change in the probability of existence of one of them can completely change the optimal estimation of the rest of the potential targets. As opposed to OSPA, the generalised OSPA (GOSPA) metric (α=2) penalises localisation errors for properly detected targets, false targets and missed targets. As a consequence, optimal GOSPA estimation aims to lower the number of false and missed targets, as well as the localisation error for properly detected targets, and avoids the spooky effect.

Multiple target tracking

random finite sets


optimal estimation


Ángel F. García-Femández

University of Liverpool

Lennart Svensson

Chalmers, Electrical Engineering, Signalbehandling och medicinsk teknik, Signal Processing

FUSION 2019 - 22nd International Conference on Information Fusion


22nd International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2019
Ottawa, Canada,

Subject Categories

Probability Theory and Statistics

Signal Processing

Medical Image Processing

More information

Latest update