Steam gasification of biomass – Typical gas quality and operational strategies derived from industrial-scale plants
Journal article, 2021

Steam gasification enables the thermochemical conversion of solid fuels into a medium calorific gas that can be utilized for the synthesis of advanced biofuels, chemicals or for heat and power production. Dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification is at present the technology applied to realize gasification of biomass in steam environment at large scale. Few large-scale DFB gasifiers exist, and this work presents a compilation and analysis of the data and operational strategies from the six DFB gasifiers in Europe. It is shown that the technology is robust, as similar gas quality can be achieved despite the differences in reactor design and operation strategies. Reference con-centrations of both gas components and tar components are provided, and correlations in the data are in-vestigated. In all plants, adjusting the availability and accessibility to the active ash components (K and Ca) was the key to control the gas quality. The gas quality, and in particular the tar content of the gas, can conveniently be assessed by monitored the concentration of CH4 in the produced gas. The data and experience acquired from these plants provide important knowledge for the future development of the steam gasification of biomass.

Fluidized bed

Bed material

Advanced biofuels


Industrial gasifier



Anton Larsson

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology


Matthias Kuba

BEST - Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies GmbH

Vienna University of Technology

Teresa Berdugo Vilches

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Martin Seemann

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Hermann Hofbauer

Vienna University of Technology

Henrik Thunman

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology

Fuel Processing Technology

0378-3820 (ISSN)

Vol. 212 106609

Subject Categories

Energy Engineering

Chemical Process Engineering

Environmental Sciences

Areas of Advance



Chalmers Power Central



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