Fully Biodegradable Composites: Thermal, Flammability, Moisture Absorption and Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Composites with Nano-Hydroxyapatite
Journal article, 2019

Natural fibre-reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) laminates were prepared by a conventional film stacking method from PLA films and natural fabrics with a cross ply layup of [0/90/0/90/0/90], followed by hot compression. Natural fibre (NF) nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) filled composites were produced by the same manufacturing technique with matrix films that had varying concentrations of nHA in the PLA. Their flammability, thermal, moisture absorption and mechanical properties were analysed in terms of the amount of nHA. The flame behavior of neat PLA and composites evaluated by the UL-94 test demonstrated that only the composite containing the highest quantity of nHA (i.e., 40 wt% nHA in matrix) was found to achieve an FH-1 rating and exhibited no recorded burn rate, whereas other composites obtained only an FH-3. The thermal degradation temperature and mass residue were also observed, via thermogravimetric analysis, to increase when increasing concentrations of nHA were added to the NF composite. The tensile strength, tensile modulus and flexural modulus of the neat resin were found to increase significantly with the introduction of flax fibre. Conversely, moisture absorption was found to increase and mechanical properties to decrease with both the presence of NF and increasing concentrations of nHA, and subsequent mechanical properties experienced an obvious reduction.


poly(lactic acid) (PLA)

nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA)

natural fibre (NF)

mechanical properties


Pooria Khalili

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Material and Computational Mechanics

University of Nottingham Ningbo China

X. Liu

University of Nottingham Ningbo China

Z. Zhao

University of Nottingham Ningbo China

Brina Blinzler

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Material and Computational Mechanics


1996-1944 (ISSN)

Vol. 12 7 1145

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Applied Mechanics

Composite Science and Engineering

Areas of Advance

Materials Science





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