In-situ TEM annealing of amorphous Fe-24at.%W coatings and the effect of crystallization on hardness
Journal article, 2021

This paper describes the crystallization which occurs upon annealing of an amorphous Fe-24at.%W coatings, electrodeposited from a glycolate-citrate plating bath. A combination of Differential Scanning Calorimetry and in-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy annealing is used to study the onset of crystallization of the amorphous coating. The in-situ TEM analyses reveal the formation of first crystallites after annealing at 400 °C for 30 min. Upon a temperature increase to 500–600 °C, the crystallites develop into Fe-rich nanocrystals with ~ 40 nm grain size. The nanocrystals are dispersed in the remaining amorphous Fe-W matrix, which results in the formation of a mixed nanocrystalline-amorphous structure. The observed crystallization can be held responsible for the increase in the hardness obtained upon annealing of Fe-24at.%W coatings. In fact, the hardness of the as-deposited material increases from 11 to 13 GPa after annealing at 400 °C, and it reaches the maximum value of 16.5 GPa after annealing at 600 °C.


Antonio Mulone

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Inga Ennen

Bielefeld University

Andreas Huetten

Bielefeld University

Uta Klement

Chalmers, Industrial and Materials Science, Materials and manufacture

Journal of Materials Science

0022-2461 (ISSN) 1573-4803 (eISSN)

Vol. 56 5 4006-4012

Smart ELECTrodeposited Alloys for environmentally sustainable applications: from advanced protective coatings to micro/nano-robotic platforms (SELECTA)

European Commission (EC) (EC/H2020/642642), 2015-01-01 -- 2018-12-31.

Driving Forces

Sustainable development

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering


Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory

Areas of Advance

Materials Science



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