Measurements of particulate size distribution from a GDI engine using a nafion dryer and a DMS500 without sample dilution
Conference contribution, 2014
Several types of engine exhaust contain moisture that must be maintained in gaseous state when sampling particulates to prevent potential destruction of the particles or damage to the measurement apparatus. This is normally achieved by diluting the sample in order to reduce the partial pressure, thus avoiding condensation. When measuring size distributions of particulates emitted from a gasoline engine, a dilution ratio of at least 5:1 is recommended. However, in some operating modes (e.g. lean homogenous modes) or measurement locations (e.g. downstream of a particulate filter) this ratio can be too high for high-resolution measurements due to the low levels of particulates. The presented study investigates the potential for using a nafion dryer to remove water from the exhaust instead of diluting the sample. An electrical mobility measurement device, a Cambustion DMS500 mk II, was operated without diluting the exhaust gases but with a nafion dryer to remove water from the exhaust. These dryers are commonly used for measuring particulates in airborne aerosols, but no information has been found in the open literature on their application in engine research. The sampling system was connected to a four cylinder SGDI-engine operating in modes that generate small amount of particulates. Samples were taken in four operating conditions, downstream of the catalyst. Overall losses in the complete system and components of the system were determined by tests with an artificially generated aerosol. Factors such as particulate losses, system performance and sample manipulation are discussed. Particulate size distributions were successfully recorded in operating regimes in which they are difficult to measure with conventional sampling systems using the required dilution. Particulate losses were found to be small in the nafion dryer but large in the heated hose prior to the nafion dryer.