Effect of logarithmic and linear frequency scales on parametric modelling of tissue dielectric data
Journal article, 2017
The dielectric properties of biological tissues have been studied widely over the past half-century. These properties are used in a vast array of applications, from determining the safety of wireless telecommunication devices to the design and optimisation of medical devices. The frequencydependent dielectric properties are represented in closed-form parametric models, such as the ColeCole model, for use in numerical simulations which examine the interaction of electromagnetic (EM) fields with the human body. In general, the accuracy ofEMsimulations depends upon the accuracy of the tissue dielectric models. Typically, dielectric properties are measured using a linear frequency scale; however, use of the logarithmic scale has been suggested historically to be more biologically descriptive. Thus, the aim of this paper is to quantitatively compare the Cole-Cole fitting of broadband tissue dielectric measurements collected with both linear and logarithmic frequency scales. In this way, we can determine if appropriate choice of scale can minimise the fit error and thus reduce the overall error in simulations. Using a well-established fundamental statistical framework, the results of the fitting for both scales are quantified. It is found that commonly used performance metrics, such as the average fractional error, are unable to examine the effect of frequency scale on the fitting results due to the averaging effect that obscures large localised errors. This work demonstrates that the broadband fit for these tissues is quantitatively improved when the given data is measured with a logarithmic frequency scale rather than a linear scale, underscoring the importance of frequency scale selection in accurate wideband dielectric modelling of human tissues.