Thermal influence on the electrochemical behavior of a supercapacitor containing an ionic liquid electrolyte
Journal article, 2018
Emerging demands on heat-durable electronics have accelerated the need for high temperature supercapacitors as well as for understanding the influence of elevated temperatures on the capacitive behavior. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of the thermal influence on a supercapacitor containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac) electrolyte and activated carbon (AC) electrodes. The performance variation as a function of temperature in a range from 21 °C to 150 °C reveals that a high specific capacitance of 142 F g−1 can be achieved at 150 °C at a current density of 2 A g−1 with a rate capability of 87% at 15 A g−1 (relative to 2 A g−1). At 150 °C, equivalent series resistance (ESR) is only 0.37 Ω cm2, which is a result of improved ionic conductivity of the electrolyte at elevated temperature. The ESR value of 2.5 Ω cm2 at room temperature reflects a good compatibility between EMIM Ac and AC. In addition, a capacitance retention of more than 95% (in the end of 1000 cycles) is maintained up to120 °C followed by 85% at 150 °C. These results confirm EMIM Ac as a suitable candidate for carbon-based high temperature supercapacitors, and the observations regarding the thermal influence on performance metrics e.g. usable operation voltage could be applicable to other energy storage devices.