First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VI. The Shadow and Mass of the Central Black Hole
Journal article, 2019

We present measurements of the properties of the central radio source in M87 using Event Horizon Telescope data obtained during the 2017 campaign. We develop and fit geometric crescent models (asymmetric rings with interior brightness depressions) using two independent sampling algorithms that consider distinct representations of the visibility data. We show that the crescent family of models is statistically preferred over other comparably complex geometric models that we explore. We calibrate the geometric model parameters using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) models of the emission region and estimate physical properties of the source. We further fit images generated from GRMHD models directly to the data. We compare the derived emission region and black hole parameters from these analyses with those recovered from reconstructed images. There is a remarkable consistency among all methods and data sets. We find that >50% of the total flux at arcsecond scales comes from near the horizon, and that the emission is dramatically suppressed interior to this region by a factor >10, providing direct evidence of the predicted shadow of a black hole. Across all methods, we measure a crescent diameter of 42 +/- 3 mu as and constrain its fractional width to be <0.5. Associating the crescent feature with the emission surrounding the black hole shadow, we infer an angular gravitational radius of GM/Dc(2) = 3.8 +/- 0.4 mu as. Folding in a distance measurement of 16.8(-0.7)(+0.8) gives a black hole mass of M = 6.5. 0.2 vertical bar(stat) +/- 0.7 vertical bar(sys) x 10(9) M-circle dot. This measurement from lensed emission near the event horizon is consistent with the presence of a central Kerr black hole, as predicted by the general theory of relativity.

galaxies: individual (M87)

gravitation

black hole physics

techniques: interferometric

techniques: high angular resolution

Author

Kazunori Akiyama

Harvard University

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Antxon Alberdi

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Walter Alef

Max Planck Society

Keiichi Asada

Academia Sinica

Rebecca Azulay

Universitat de Valencia

Max Planck Society

Anne-Kathrin Baczko

Max Planck Society

David Ball

University of Arizona

Mislav Balokovic

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

John Barrett

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Dan Bintley

East Asian Observatory

Lindy Blackburn

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Wilfred Boland

Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Astronomie (NOVA)

Katherine L. Bouman

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Geoffrey C. Bower

Academia Sinica

Michael Bremer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Christiaan D. Brinkerink

Radboud University

Roger Brissenden

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Silke Britzen

Max Planck Society

Avery E. Broderick

University of Waterloo

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dominique Broguiere

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas Bronzwaer

Radboud University

Do-Young Byun

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

John E. Carlstrom

University of Chicago

Andrew Chael

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Chi-Kwan Chan

University of Arizona

Shami Chatterjee

Cornell University

Koushik Chatterjee

University of Amsterdam

Ming-Tang Chen

Academia Sinica

Yongjun Chen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ilje Cho

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Pierre Christian

University of Arizona

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

John Conway

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory

James M. Cordes

Cornell University

Geoffrey B. Crew

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Yuzhu Cui

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Jordy Davelaar

Radboud University

Mariafelicia De Laurentis

Goethe University Frankfurt

University of Naples Federico II

National Institute for Nuclear Physics

Roger Deane

University of Pretoria

Rhodes University

Jessica Dempsey

East Asian Observatory

Gregory Desvignes

Max Planck Society

Jason Dexter

Max Planck Society

Sheperd S. Doeleman

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ralph P. Eatough

Max Planck Society

Heino Falcke

Radboud University

Vincent L. Fish

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ed Fomalont

National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Raquel Fraga-Encinas

Radboud University

Per Friberg

East Asian Observatory

Christian M. Fromm

Goethe University Frankfurt

Jose L. Gomez

Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Peter Galison

Harvard University

Charles F. Gammie

University of Illinois

Roberto Garcia

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Olivier Gentaz

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Boris Georgiev

University of Waterloo

Ciriaco Goddi

Radboud University

Leiden University

Roman Gold

Goethe University Frankfurt

Minfeng Gu

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Kazuhiro Hada

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Michael H. Hecht

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ronald Hesper

University of Groningen

Luis C. Ho

Beijing University of Technology

Paul Ho

Academia Sinica

Mareki Honma

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

Chih-Wei L. Huang

Academia Sinica

Lei Huang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

David H. Hughes

National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics

Shiro Ikeda

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)

University of Tokyo

The Institute of Statistical Mathematics

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Makoto Inoue

Academia Sinica

Sara Issaoun

Radboud University

David J. James

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Buell T. Jannuzi

University of Arizona

Michael Janssen

Radboud University

Britton Jeter

University of Waterloo

Wu Jiang

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Michael D. Johnson

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Svetlana Jorstad

Boston University

Saint Petersburg State University - Spsu

Taehyun Jung

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Mansour Karami

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

University of Waterloo

Ramesh Karuppusamy

Max Planck Society

Tomohisa Kawashima

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Garrett K. Keating

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Mark Kettenis

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Jae-Young Kim

Max Planck Society

Junhan Kim

University of Arizona

Jongsoo Kim

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Motoki Kino

Kogakuin University of Technology and Engineering

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Jun Yi Koay

Academia Sinica

Patrick M. Koch

Academia Sinica

Shoko Koyama

Academia Sinica

Michael Kramer

Max Planck Society

Carsten Kramer

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Thomas P. Krichbaum

Max Planck Society

Cheng-Yu Kuo

National Sun Yat-Sen University

Tod R. Lauer

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

Sang-Sung Lee

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yan-Rong Li

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Zhiyuan Li

Nanjing University

Michael Lindqvist

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Observation Support

Kuo Liu

Max Planck Society

Elisabetta Liuzzo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Wen-Ping Lo

Academia Sinica

National Taiwan University

Andrei P. Lobanov

Max Planck Society

Laurent Loinard

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

Colin Lonsdale

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Ru-Sen Lu

Max Planck Society

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Nicholas R. MacDonald

Max Planck Society

Jirong Mao

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sera Markoff

University of Amsterdam

Daniel P. Marrone

University of Arizona

Alan P. Marscher

Boston University

Ivan Marti-Vidal

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory

Satoki Matsushita

Academia Sinica

Lynn D. Matthews

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Lia Medeiros

University of Arizona

University of California at Santa Barbara

Karl M. Menten

Max Planck Society

Yosuke Mizuno

Goethe University Frankfurt

Izumi Mizuno

East Asian Observatory

James M. Moran

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Kotaro Moriyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Monika Moscibrodzka

Radboud University

Cornelia Mueller

Max Planck Society

Radboud University

Hiroshi Nagai

University of Naples Federico II

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Neil M. Nagar

University of Concepcion

Masanori Nakamura

Academia Sinica

Ramesh Narayan

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Gopal Narayanan

University of Massachusetts

Iniyan Natarajan

Rhodes University

Roberto Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Chunchong Ni

University of Waterloo

Aristeidis Noutsos

Max Planck Society

Hiroki Okino

University of Tokyo

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Hector Olivares

Goethe University Frankfurt

Tomoaki Oyama

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Feryal Ozel

University of Arizona

Daniel C. M. Palumbo

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Nimesh Patel

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ue-Li Pen

University of Toronto

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Canadian Institute for Advanced Research

Dominic W. Pesce

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

Vincent Pietu

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Richard Plambeck

University of California at Berkeley

Aleksandar PopStefanija

University of Massachusetts

Oliver Porth

University of Amsterdam

Goethe University Frankfurt

Ben Prather

University of Illinois

Jorge A. Preciado-Lopez

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Dimitrios Psaltis

University of Arizona

Hung-Yi Pu

Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics

Venkatessh Ramakrishnan

University of Concepcion

Ramprasad Rao

Academia Sinica

Mark G. Rawlings

East Asian Observatory

Alexander W. Raymond

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Luciano Rezzolla

Goethe University Frankfurt

Bart Ripperda

Goethe University Frankfurt

Freek Roelofs

Radboud University

Alan Rogers

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Eduardo Ros

Max Planck Society

Mel Rose

University of Arizona

Arash Roshanineshat

University of Arizona

Helge Rottmann

Max Planck Society

Alan L. Roy

Max Planck Society

Chet Ruszczyk

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Benjamin R. Ryan

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kazi L. J. Rygl

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Salvador Sanchez

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

David Sanchez-Arguelles

National Council for Science and Technology Mexico

National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics

Mahito Sasada

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Hiroshima University

Tuomas Savolainen

Max Planck Society

Aalto University

F. Peter Schloerb

University of Massachusetts

Karl-Friedrich Schuster

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Lijing Shao

Max Planck Society

Beijing University of Technology

Zhiqiang Shen

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Des Small

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Bong Won Sohn

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Yonsei University

University of Science and Technology (UST)

Jason SooHoo

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Fumie Tazaki

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Paul Tiede

University of Waterloo

Remo P. J. Tilanus

Radboud University

Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)

Michael Titus

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Kenji Toma

Tohoku University

Pablo Torne

Max Planck Society

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM)

Tyler Trent

University of Arizona

Sascha Trippe

Seoul National University

Shuichiro Tsuda

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

Ilse van Bemmel

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Huib Jan van Langevelde

Leiden University

Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE)

Daniel R. van Rossum

Radboud University

Jan Wagner

Max Planck Society

John Wardle

Brandeis University

Jonathan Weintroub

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Norbert Wex

Max Planck Society

Robert Wharton

Max Planck Society

Maciek Wielgus

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Harvard University

George N. Wong

University of Illinois

Qingwen Wu

Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Andre Young

Radboud University

Ken Young

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ziri Younsi

University College London (UCL)

Goethe University Frankfurt

Feng Yuan

Chinese Academy of Sciences

Ye-Fei Yuan

University of Science and Technology of China

J. Anton Zensus

Max Planck Society

Guangyao Zhao

Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute

Shan-Shan Zhao

Nanjing University

Radboud University

Ziyan Zhu

Harvard University

Joseph R. Farah

University of Massachusetts Boston

Harvard University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Zheng Meyer-Zhao

Academia Sinica

Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON)

Daniel Michalik

University of Chicago

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Andrew Nadolski

University of Illinois

Hiroaki Nishioka

Academia Sinica

Nicolas Pradel

Academia Sinica

Rurik A. Primiani

Systems & Technology Research

Kamal Souccar

University of Massachusetts

Laura Vertatschitsch

Systems & Technology Research

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Paul Yamaguchi

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Astrophysical Journal Letters

2041-8205 (ISSN) 2041-8213 (eISSN)

Vol. 875 1 L6

Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Geophysics

DOI

10.3847/2041-8213/ab1141

More information

Latest update

6/28/2021