Ground-based measurements of the 2014-2015 Holuhraun volcanic cloud
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2018

The 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga fissure eruption at Holuhraun was distinguished by high emission of gases, in total 9.6 Mt SO2, with almost no tephra. This work presents the ground-based measurements of this extraordinary eruption cloud made under particularly challenging conditions: remote location, optically dense plume with high SO2 column amounts, low UV intensity, frequent clouds and precipitation, an extensive and hot lava field, and developing ramparts which prevented a clear line of site to the main vent. Three scanning DOASes provided semi-continuous measurements that were augmented by car-mounted traverses along the ring-road and along the lava. The ratios of other gases/SO2 were measured by OP-FTIR, MultiGAS and Filterpacks. SO2/HCl = 30 – 110 and SO2/HF = 30 – 130 ratios show a halogen-poor eruption cloud. Scientists on-site reported extremely minor tephra production during the start of the eruption. OPC and filter packs showed low particle concentrations similar to non-eruption cloud conditions. Three weather radars detected a droplet-rich eruption cloud. Top of eruption cloud heights of 0.3 – 5.5 km agl were measured with ground- and aircraft-based visual observations, web camera and NICAIR2 infrared images, triangulation of scanning DOASes, and the location of SO2 peaks measured by DOAS traverses in conjunction with modeled winds. Plume height and emission rate measurements were critical for initializing gas dispersal simulations for hazard forecasting.

Författare

M. A. Pfeffer

Baldur Bergsson

S. Barsotti

Gerður Stefánsdóttir

Bo Galle

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys

Santiago Arellano

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys

Alexander Vladimir Conde Jacobo

Chalmers, Rymd-, geo- och miljövetenskap, Mikrovågs- och optisk fjärranalys

Amy Donovan

Evgenia Ilyinskaya

Mike Burton

Alessandro Aiuppa

Rachel Whitty

Isla Simmons

Þórður Arason

Elín Jónasdóttir

Nicole Keller

Richard Yeo

Hermann Arngrímsson

Þorsteinn Jóhannsson

Mary Butwin

Robert Askew

Stéphanie Dumont

Sibylle von Löwis

Þorgils Ingvarsson

Alessandro La Spina

Helen Thomas

Fred Prata

Fausto Grassa

G. Giudice

Andri Stefánsson

Frank Marzano

Mario Montopoli

Luigi Mereu

Geosciences (Switzerland)

2076-3263 (eISSN)

Vol. 8

Fundament

Grundläggande vetenskaper

Ämneskategorier

Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap

DOI

10.3390/geosciences8010029