Inertial Navigation and Position Uncertainty during a Blind Safe Stop of an Autonomous Vehicle
Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, 2020
This work considers the problem of position and position-uncertainty estimation for atonomous vehicles during power black-out, where it cannot be assumed that any position data is accessible. To tackle this problem, the position estimation will instead be performed using power separated and independent measurement devices, including one inertial 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) measurement unit, four angular wheel speed sensors and one pinion angle sensor. The measurement unit's sensors are initially characterized in order to understand conceptual limitations of the inertial navigation and also to be used in a filtering process. Measurement models are then fused together with vehicle dynamics process models using the architecture of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Two different EKF filter concepts are developed to estimate the vehicle position during a safe stop; one simpler filter for smooth manoeuvres and a complex filter for aggressive manoeuvres. Both filter designs are tested and evaluated with data gathered from an experimental vehicle for selected manoeuvres of developed safe-stop scenarios. The experimental results from a set of use-case manoeuvres show a trend where the size of the position estimation errors significantly grows above an initial vehicle speed of 70 km/h. This paper contributes to develop vehicle dynamics models for the purpose of a blind safe stop.
Sensor phenomena and characterization