The prospects for willow plantations for wastewater treatment in Sweden
Journal article, 2006
The concept of willow vegetation filters for the treatment of nutrient-rich wastewater has the potential to address two of our most serious environmental problems today -water pollution and climate change- in a cost-efficient way. Despite several benefits, including high treatment efficiency, increased biomass yields, improved energy and resource efficiency, and cost savings, willow vegetation filters have so far only been implemented to a limited degree in Sweden. This is due to various kinds of barriers, which may be the result of current institutional, structural and technical/geographical conditions. This paper discusses the prospects of a more widespread utilisation of willow plantations for wastewater treatment in Sweden, including existing incentives and barriers, based on current knowledge and experience. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.