Antiferromagnets and Luttinger Liquids: Two Strongly Correlated Systems
Doctoral thesis, 1997
Strongly correlated systems show a variety of intriguing properties and have been extensively studied over the years. In this thesis two strongly correlated systems are discussed: the two-dimensional antiferromagnet and the Luttinger liquid.
The Luttinger liquid has attracted much interest as a paradigm of non-Fermi liquid behavior. In the first part of the thesis, basic properties of Fermi liquids are briefly described while those of Luttinger liquids are considered in more detail. The differences in spectral properties of Luttinger liquids and Fermi liquids are discussed, as are the consequences for photoemission experiments. In this context Luttinger liquids with boundaries, treated in Papers I, II, and III, are introduced. The exact single-electron Green's function at finite temperature is calculated with bosonization methods, for both periodic and finite open-boundary systems. The corresponding local spectral density is analyzed. For a system with open boundaries, the well-known zero temperature bulk behavior always crosses over to a boundary dominated regime for small energies, while at finite temperature the low energy behavior becomes quadratic. For a periodic finite-size system we also calculate the Coulomb-blockade-like oscillations and study their dependence on interaction and temperature.
The two-dimensional antiferromagnet has attracted much attention due to its connection to the undoped phase of the ceramic high-temperature superconductors. In the second part of the thesis including Papers IV and V, the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet defined on the triangular and the honeycomb lattices is studied. We use the Schwinger-boson mean-field theory to investigate the stability of the ground state with respect to frustration. For the honeycomb lattice model we find an increased Néel stability as compared to the classical case. The dynamic structure factor is considered for various temperatures and the spin-wave velocity and the susceptibility are presented as functions of frustration for spin S=1/2. In the case of the intrinsically frustrated triangular lattice model we obtain, in the limit of infinite spin, results in complete agreement with the linear spin-wave theory. In contrast to the latter, however, two of the three modes acquire a mass for finite spin. The origin of this effect is discussed.