History and conceptual development of spectrum commons in the USA
Conference contribution, 2010
The wireless devices that use radio communication are a part of day-to-day activities ranging from the garage opener, remote control, toys, Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), navigation system (land, air and sea), earphone, cordless telephone and card reader to Internet connection (Wi-Fi) in the smart phone. Most of these appliances are low-power and unlicensed devices, whose uses have increased over time. The unlicensed devices share the frequency or spectrum commons authorized by the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) in each country, which has established rules in order to manage the spectrum. The rules allow the user to use a device without prior authorization, but with no protective rights. Users must accept the interference generated from other users. However, these uses of devices should not cause harmful interference to licensed users. Thus, the unlicensed devices must comply with the standard before they are marketed or imported. This paper provides a chronological account of how the spectrum commons developed in the USA. A survey of the literature provides the rationale for spectrum commons and why this concept is so important. Furthermore, the debate on each spectrum assignment approach and the trend of the use of spectrum commons are described.