Characterisation of titanium dental implants I:critical assessment of surface roughness parameters
Journal article, 2010
Titanium is commonly used for dental implants because of its unique ability to get incorporated into living bone. There is an ongoing development to obtain better anchorage and surface properties such as roughness and chemical composition are modified to reach this. In this study titanium dental implant surfaces were characterised by recording the topographical changes induced by each individual processing step such as cleaning, blasting, and HF etching. To fully describe the different surfaces, the same point was analysed before and after each step using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and 3D-Scanning Electron Microscopy (3D-SEM). A set of 3D surface parameters were calculated as a function of filter size to describe the topographic features at different levels. The chemical treatment introduces nano-sized features while blasting changes the topography at the micrometer level and by combining AFM and 3D-SEM the entire range can be assessed. The results show that the chemically induced changes in the topography can only be revealed by AFM while 3D-SEM gives a clear description of the topography of blasted surfaces. The fractal dimension for the chemically treated surface was the same as for the blasted surfaces but crossover size was much smaller. Besides the commonly used Sa parameter it is suggested that the root-mean-square of the surface slope (Sdq) and the void volume (Vvc) parameters are included in the characterisation of rough surfaces. These parameters can be used for correlation with in vivo performance.
titanium dental implants
Surface roughness parameters