Pilot-scale combustion studies with kraft lignin in a powder burner and a CFB boiler
Journal article, 2010
Processes have been developed to produce a solid biofuel with high energy density and low ash content from kraft lignin precipitated from black liquor. Pilot-scale tests of the lignin biofuel were carried out with a 150 kW powder burner and a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. Lignin powder could be fired in a powder burner with good combustion performance after some trimming of the air flows to reduce swirl. Lignin dried to 10% moisture content was easy to feed smoothly and had less bridging tendencies in the feeding system than did wood/bark powder. In the CFB boiler, lignin was easily handled and cofired together with bark. Although the filter cake was broken into smaller pieces and fines, the combustion was not disturbed. When cofiring lignin with bark, the sulfur emission increased compared with bark firing only, but most of the sulfur was captured by calcium in the bark ash. Conventional sulfur capture also occurred with addition of limestone to the bed. The sulfur content in the lignin had a significantly positive effect on reducing the alkali chloride content in the deposits, thus reducing the high temperature corrosion risk.