Characterization of the effluent from a nanosilver producing washing machine.
Journal article, 2011

The increasing number of nanomaterial based consumer products raises concerns about their possible impact on the environment. This study provides an assessment of the effluent from a commercially available silver nanowashing machine. The washing machine released silver in its effluent at an average concentration of 11μgL(-1), as determined by inductive coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by single particle ICP-MS as well as ion selective electrode measurements and filtration techniques. Size measurements showed particles to be in the defined nanosize range, with an average size of 10nm measured with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 60-100nm determined with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). The effluent was shown to have negative effects on a natural bacterial community as its abundance was clearly reduced when exposed to the nanowash water. If washing machines capable of producing AgNPs become a common feature of households in the future, wastewater will contain significant loadings of AgNPs which might be released into the environment.


Julia Farkas

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

University of Oslo

Hannes Peter

Uppsala University

Paul Christian

University of Manchester

Julian A. Gallego-Urrea

University of Gothenburg

Martin Hassellöv

University of Gothenburg

Jani Tuoriniemi

University of Gothenburg

Stefan Gustafsson

Chalmers, Applied Physics, Microscopy and Microanalysis

SuMo Biomaterials

Eva Olsson

Chalmers, Applied Physics, Microscopy and Microanalysis

Ketil Hylland

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

University of Oslo

Kevin Victor Thomas

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

Environment International

01604120 (ISSN) 18736750 (eISSN)

Vol. 37 6 1057-62

Subject Categories

Chemical Sciences





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