Intervertebral disc response to cyclic loading--an animal model.
Journal article, 1996
The viscoelastic response of a lumbar motion segment loaded in cyclic compression was studied in an in vivo porcine model (N = 7). Using surgical techniques, a miniaturized servohydraulic exciter was attached to the L2-L3 motion segment via pedicle fixation. A dynamic loading scheme was implemented, which consisted of one hour of sinusoidal vibration at 5 Hz, 50 N peak load, followed by one hour of restitution at zero load and one hour of sinusoidal vibration at 5 Hz, 100 N peak load. The force and displacement responses of the motion segment were sampled at 25 Hz. The experimental data were used for evaluating the parameters of two viscoelastic models: a standard linear solid model (three-parameter) and a linear Burger's fluid model (four-parameter). In this study, the creep behaviour under sinusoidal vibration at 5 Hz closely resembled the creep behaviour under static loading observed in previous studies. Expanding the three-parameter solid model into a four-parameter fluid model made it possible to separate out a progressive linear displacement term. This deformation was not fully recovered during restitution and is therefore an indication of a specific effect caused by the cyclic loading. High variability was observed in the parameters determined from the 50 N experimental data, particularly for the elastic modulus E1. However, at the 100 N load level, significant differences between the models were found. Both models accurately predicted the creep response under the first 800 s of 100 N loading, as displayed by mean absolute errors for the calculated deformation data from the experimental data of 1.26 and 0.97 percent for the solid and fluid models respectively. The linear Burger's fluid model, however, yielded superior predictions particularly for the initial elastic response.