Simulations of absorbed dose on the phantom surface of MATROSHKA-R experiment at the ISS
Journal article, 2012
The health risks associated with exposure to various components of space radiation are of great concern when planning manned long-term interplanetary missions, such as future missions to Mars. Since it is not possible to measure the radiation environment inside of human organs in deep space, simulations based on radiation transport/interaction codes coupled to phantoms of tissue equivalent materials are used. However, the calculated results depend on the models used in the codes, and it is therefore necessary to verify their validity by comparison with measured data. The goal of this paper is to compare absorbed doses obtained in the MATROSHKA-R experiment performed at the International Space Station (ISS) with simulations performed with the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The absorbed dose was measured using passive detectors (packages of thermoluminescent and plastic nuclear track detectors) placed on the surface of the spherical tissue equivalent phantom MATROSHKA-R, which was exposed aboard the ISS in the Service Zvezda Module from December 2005 to September 2006. The data calculated by PHITS assuming an ISS shielding of 3 g/cm(2) and 5 g/cm(2) aluminum mass thickness were in good agreement with the measurements. Using a simplified geometrical model of the ISS, the influence of variations in altitude and wall mass thickness of the ISS on the calculated absorbed dose was estimated. The uncertainties of the calculated data are also discussed; the relative expanded uncertainty of absorbed dose in phantom was estimated to be 44% at a 95% confidence level.