Structural and magnetic properties of isovalently substituted multiferroic BiFeO3: Insights from Raman spectroscopy
Journal article, 2012
Raman spectra, supplemented by powder x-ray diffraction and magnetization data of isovalently A- and B-site substituted BiFeO3 in the Bi1−xLaxFeO3 (0≤x≤1), Bi1−xTbxFeO3 (0≤x≤0.2), and Bi0.9Sm0.1Fe1−xMnxO3 (0≤x≤0.3) series, are presented. A good agreement between the structural transitions observed by x-ray diffraction and the vibrational modes observed in the Raman spectra is found over the whole substitutional ranges, and in particular we find spectroscopic signatures of a PbZrO3-type structure for Bi0.8La0.2FeO3. Mode assignments in the substituted materials are made based on Raman spectra of the end-members BiFeO3 and LaFeO3. Moreover, by comparing spectra from all samples with R3c structure, the phonon assignment in BiFeO3 is revisited. A close connection between the degree of octahedral tilt and the Raman shift of the A1 oxygen a−a−a− tilt mode is established. An explanation for the strong second-order scattering observed in Bi1−xLaxFeO3 and Bi1−xTbxFeO3 is suggested, including the assignment of the previously mysterious BiFeO3 mode at 620 cm−1. Finally, the magnetization data indicates a transition from a cycloidal modulated state towards a canted antiferromagnet with increasing A-site substitution, while Bi0.9Sm0.1Fe1−xMnxO3 with x=0 and 0.15 exhibit an anomalous closing of the hysteresis loop at low temperatures. For low A-site substitution levels (x≤0.1) the decreasing Raman intensity of the Fe derived modes correlates with the partial destruction of the spin cycloid as the substitution level increases.