Materials for Chemical-Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling
Journal article, 2013
Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of carbon dioxide. The process is a three-step process which utilizes a circulating oxygen carrier to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel. The process utilizes two interconnected fluidized bed reactors, an air reactor and a fuel reactor. In the fuel reactor, the metal oxide decomposes with the release of gas phase oxygen (step 1), which reacts directly with the fuel through normal combustion (step 2). The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported to the air reactor where it reacts with the oxygen in the air (step 3). The outlet from the fuel reactor consists of only CO2 and H2O, and pure carbon dioxide can be obtained by simple condensation of the steam. This paper gives an overview of the research conducted around the CLOU process, including (i) a thermodynamic evaluation, (ii) a complete review of tested oxygen carriers, (iii) review of kinetic data of reduction and oxidation, and (iv) evaluation of design criteria. From the tests of various fuels in continuous chemical-looping units utilizing CLOU materials, it can be established that almost full conversion of the fuel can be obtained for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels.