A Framework for Conflict Analysis of Normative Texts Written in Controlled Natural Language
Journal article, 2013

In this paper we are concerned with the analysis of normative conflicts, or the detection of conflicting obligations, permissions and prohibitions in normative texts written in a Controlled Natural Language (CNL). For this we present AnaCon, a proof-of-concept system where normative texts written in CNL are automatically translated into the formal language CL using the Grammatical Framework (GF). Such CL expressions are then analysed for normative conflicts by the CLAN tool, which gives counter-examples in cases where conflicts are found. The framework also uses GF to give a CNL version of the counter-example, helping the user to identify the conflicts in the original text. We detail the application of AnaCon to two case studies and discuss the effectiveness of our approach.


Legal contracts


Grammatical framework


Normative texts

Conflict analysis

Controlled natural language


Krasimir Angelov

University of Gothenburg

John J. Camilleri

University of Gothenburg

Gerardo Schneider

University of Gothenburg

Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming

1567-8326 (ISSN)

Vol. 82 5-7 216-240

Subject Categories

Computer Science



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