Measurements of air pollution emission factors for marine transportation in SECA
Journal article, 2013
The chemical composition of the plumes of seagoing ships was measured during a two week long measurement campaign in the port of Rotterdam, Hoek van Holland The Netherlands, in September 2009. Altogether, 497 ships were monitored and a statistical evaluation of emission factors (g kg(-1) fuel) was provided. The concerned main atmospheric components were SO2, NO2, NOx and the aerosol particle number. In addition, the elemental and water-soluble ionic composition of the emitted particulate matter was determined. Emission factors were expressed as a function of ship type, power and crankshaft rotational speed. The average SO2 emission factor was found to be roughly half of what is allowed in sulphur emission control areas (16 vs. 30 g kg(-1) fuel), and exceedances of this limit were rarely registered. A significant linear relationship was observed between the SO2 and particle number emission factors. The intercept of the regression line, 4.8 x 10(15) (kg fuel)(-1), gives the average number of particles formed during the burning of 1 kg zero sulphur content fuel, while the slope, 2 x 10(18), provides the average number of particles formed with 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. Water-soluble ionic composition analysis of the aerosol samples from the plumes showed that similar to 144 g of particulate sulphate was emitted from 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. The mass median diameter of sulphate particles estimated from the measurements was similar to 42 nm.