LOFAR: The LOw-Frequency ARray
Journal article, 2013

LOFAR, the LOw-Frequency ARray, is a new-generation radio interferometer constructed in the north of the Netherlands and across europe. Utilizing a novel phased-array design, LOFAR covers the largely unexplored low-frequency range from 10-240 MHz and provides a number of unique observing capabilities. Spreading out from a core located near the village of Exloo in the northeast of the Netherlands, a total of 40 LOFAR stations are nearing completion. A further five stations have been deployed throughout Germany, and one station has been built in each of France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR achieves unparalleled sensitivity and angular resolution in the low-frequency radio regime. The LOFAR facilities are jointly operated by the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) foundation, as an observatory open to the global astronomical community. LOFAR is one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. LOFAR's new capabilities, techniques and modus operandi make it an important pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). We give an overview of the LOFAR instrument, its major hardware and software components, and the core science objectives that have driven its design. In addition, we present a selection of new results from the commissioning phase of this new radio observatory.


probe wmap

dark ages



z-greater-than-5.7 quasars

monte-carlo simulations

intergalactic medium


radio lines:

first stars

radio continuum: general

ray air-showers


understanding radio polarimetry

instrumentation: interferometers


digital sky survey

interplanetary scintillation


M. P. van Haarlem

M. W. Wise

A. W. Gunst

G. Heald

J. P. McKean

J. W. T. Hessels

A. G. de Bruyn

R. Nijboer

J. Swinbank

R. A. Fallows

M. Brentjens

A. Nelles

R. Beck

H. Falcke

R. Fender

J. Horandel

L. V. E. Koopmans

G. Mann

G. Miley

H. Rottgering

B. W. Stappers

Ramj Wijers

S. Zaroubi

M. van den Akker

A. Alexov

J. Anderson

K. Anderson

Arnold van Ardenne

Chalmers, Earth and Space Sciences, Onsala Space Observatory

M. Arts

A. Asgekar

I. M. Avruch

Fabien Batejat

Chalmers, Earth and Space Sciences, Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics

L. Bahren

M. E. Bell

M. R. Bell

I. van Bemmel

P. Bennema

M. J. Bentum

G. Bernardi

P. Best

L. Birzan

A. Bonafede

A. J. Boonstra

R. Braun

J. Bregman

F. Breitling

R. H. van de Brink

J. Broderick

P. C. Broekema

W. N. Brouw

M. Brüggen

H. R. Butcher

W. van Cappellen

B. Ciardi

T. Coenen

John Conway

Chalmers, Earth and Space Sciences, Onsala Space Observatory

A. Coolen

A. Corstanje

S. Damstra

O. Davies

A. T. Deller

R. J. Dettmar

G. van Diepen

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M. Gerbers

E. de Geus

J. M. Griessmeier

T. Grit

P. Gruppen

J. P. Hamaker

T. Hassall

M. Hoeft

H. A. Holties

A. Horneffer

A. van der Horst

A. van Houwelingen

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N. Jackson

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S. Markoff

J. Masters

R. A. McFadden

D. McKay-Bukowski

H. Meijering

H. Meulman

M. Mevius

R. Millenaar

J. C. A. Miller-Jones

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H. Munk

L. Nieuwenhuis

R. van Nieuwpoort

J. E. Noordam

M. Norden

A. Noutsos

A. R. Offringa

Hans Olofsson

Chalmers, Earth and Space Sciences, Onsala Space Observatory

A. Omar

E. Orru

R. Overeem

H. Paas

M. Pandey-Pommier

V. N. Pandey

R. Pizzo

A. Polatidis

D. Rafferty

S. Rawlings

W. Reich

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G. A. Renting

P. Riemers

E. Rol

J. W. Romein

J. Roosjen

M. Ruiter

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B. Scheers

P. Schellart

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O. Smirnov

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C. G. M. Sterks

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J. P. W. Verbiest

R. Vermeulen

N. Vermaas

C. Vocks

C. Vogt

M. de Vos

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H. Weggemans

P. Weltevrede

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Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 556 August article no. A2- A2

Subject Categories

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology



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