Effects of the equilibrium model on impurity transport in tokamaks
Journal article, 2014
Gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient mode and trapped electron mode driven impurity transport in a realistic tokamak geometry are presented and compared with results using simplified geometries. The gyrokinetic results, obtained with the GENE code in both linear and non-linear modes are compared with data and analysis for a dedicated impurity injection discharge at JET. The impact of several factors on heat and particle transport is discussed, lending special focus to tokamak geometry and rotational shear. To this end, results using s–α and concentric circular equilibria are compared with results with magnetic geometry from a JET experiment. To further approach experimental conditions, non-linear gyrokinetic simulations are performed with collisions and a carbon background included.
The impurity peaking factors, computed by finding local density gradients corresponding to zero particle flux, are discussed. The impurity peaking factors are seen to be reduced by a factor of ~2 in realistic geometry compared with the simplified geometries, due to a reduction of the convective pinch. It is also seen that collisions reduce the peaking factor for low-Z impurities, while increasing it for high charge numbers, which is attributed to a shift in the transport spectra towards higher wavenumbers with the addition of collisions. With the addition of roto-diffusion, an overall reduction of the peaking factors is observed, but this decrease is not sufficient to explain the flat carbon profiles seen at JET.
Gyrofluid and gyrokinetic simulations
Impurities in plasmas