Compression failure mechanism in small scale timber specimens
Journal article, 2014

Understanding the failure mechanism of wood loaded in compression parallel to the grain has been shown to be an important parameter in the design of timber beams strengthened with fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP). In this paper, a constitutive relationship for wood under uniaxial compression load parallel to the grain was determined experimentally. Several parameters, such as silviculture, moisture content and radial position in the log in relation to the pith from where the specimen was sawn, were considered. Small clear-wood specimens were used. The strain localisation in the failure region (kinkband) was monitored using the digital image correlation method. The results show that silviculture and moisture content are two very important parameters which influence the compression failure mechanism. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in behaviour between specimens from the juvenile region of the log and specimens from mature wood. Based on experimental results, two numerical models were built, considering either a global or a local constitutive relationship. It was demonstrated that both numerical models yield accurate results and that, depending on the experimental equipment available, a constitutive relationship could be extracted and used as input in these numerical models. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




Juvenile wood


Numerical model

Experimental results


Compression failure parallel to the grain

Mature wood

Analytical model


Alann André

Chalmers, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Structural Engineering

Robert Kliger

Chalmers, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Structural Engineering

L. E. Asp


Luleå University of Technology

Construction and Building Materials

0950-0618 (ISSN)

Vol. 50 130-139

Subject Categories

Materials Engineering

Composite Science and Engineering



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