Energy absorption and damage mechanisms in progressive crushing of corrugated NCF laminates: Fractographic analysis
Journal article, 2014
To develop reliable and physically based models for the crash behaviour of composite laminates, a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms is crucial. Compression tests of corrugated Non-Crimp Fabric (NCF) laminates, made of carbon fibre unidirectional (UD) fabric with a [0/90](3S) stacking sequence and epoxy, have been performed to study the energy absorbing damage mechanisms. Samples from the specimens have been studied with optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the mechanisms involved in the crushing process. The specimens tested fail partly in bending and partly in pure compression with a mode I delamination separating these two regions. In the region failing in pure compression, the main damage mechanisms are kink band formation and matrix cracking of transverse bundles, whereas in the part failing in bending mixed mode delaminations, intralaminar shear fracture of axial bundles and kink band formation through parts of bundles are identified.