Subcutaneous administration of nano- and microsuspensions of poorly soluble compounds to rats
Journal article, 2014
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and interpret the pharmacokinetic profiles of two compounds after subcutaneous (s.c.) administration. The compounds have similar physicochemical properties, but are a base (BA99) and an acid (AC88), respectively. The compounds were administered as nano- (5 and 500 mu mol/kg) and microsuspensions (5 mu mol/kg) s.c. to Sprague-Dawley rats. At the low dose, the exposure was higher for both compounds administered as nanocrystals compared to microparticles. The high dose of the compounds resulted in even higher exposure, but not in a dose-linear manner. The differences in exposure between nano- and microparticles were mainly ascribed to higher dissolution rate and improved solubility for smaller particles. In addition to differences in exposure, there were also differences in the elimination pattern. After s.c. injection of 5 mu mol/kg of BA99 as nano- and microsuspensions, the elimination profile was similar as observed earlier after oral administration. However, after injection of the higher dose of BA99 and all formulations of AC88, an extended elimination profile was observed, forming a maintained plateau under the investigated time-period. Essentially, constant plasma levels were caused by a balanced equilibrium between total body clearance of the drug and supply rate of drug from the formulations.