Hydroprocessing of fatty acid methyl ester containing resin acids blended with gas oil
Journal article, 2014
Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with resin acids was blended with light gas oil (LGO) from 10 to 30 wt.% and then investigated using elevated temperature (300 to 370 degrees C) at 5 MPa on NiMoS/alumina in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR). Hydroprocessing of blended LGO showed lower S content (less than 8 ppm) at 100% conversion and reached the target cloud point on middle distillate diesel fuel. In this study a significant change in the physical and chemical properties of LGO was observed. For the distillate product, viscosity, distillation curve, nitrogen content and density were all in the expected standard grades of diesel. Here, a presence of sulfur in LGO significantly reduced catalyst deactivation. Higher concentrations of aromatic content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degraded to reach the EU diesel standard; in particular, the resin content in FAME could enable up to 50% aromatization. Elevated experimental temperatures increased decarboxylation as compared with deoxygenation for all compositions of FAME and resin acids in this upgrading process. Carbonyl compounds like CO and CO2 formation in lighter products result from resin acids decarbonylation and decarboxylation reaction pathway.