A Model of Sound Scattering by Atmospheric Turbulence for Use in Noise Mapping Calculations
Journal article, 2014
Sound scattering due to atmospheric turbulence limits the noise reduction in shielded areas. An engineering model is presented, aimed to predict the scattered level for general noise mapping purposes including sound propagation between urban canyons. Energy based single scattering for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence following the Kolmogorov model is assumed as a starting point and a saturation based on the von Karman model is used as a first-order multiple scattering approximation. For a single shielding obstacle the scattering model is used to calculate a large dataset as function of the effective height of the shielding obstacle and its distances to source and receiver. A parameterisation of the dataset is used when calculating the influence of single or double canyons, including standardised air attenuation rates as well as facade absorption and Fresnel weighting of the multiple facade reflections. Assuming a single point source, an aver aging over three receiver positions and that each ground reflection causes energy doubling, the final engineering model is formulated as a scattered level for a shielding building without canyon plus a correction term for the effect of a single or a double canyon, assuming a flat rooftop of the shielding building. Input parameters are, in addition to geometry and sound frequency, the strengths of velocity and temperature turbulence.