Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA : I. An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas
Journal article, 2014

Aims. We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We aim to understand if and how gas accretion can self-regulate.Methods. We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas (n(H2) ' 1056 cm3) tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3), and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ∼ 2 kpc of NGC 1068 with spatial resolutions ∼0:3000:500 (∼20-35 pc for the assumed distance of D = 14 Mpc). Results. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA give an unprecedented detailed view of the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas (n(H2) ≈ 1056cm3) in NGC 1068. Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ∼ 200 pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6 kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ∼ 1:3 kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN, and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), betraying ongoing feedback. We used the dust continuum fluxes measured by ALMA together with NIR/MIR data to constrain the properties of the putative torus using CLUMPY models and found a torus radius of 20+6 10 pc. The Fourier decomposition of the gas velocity field indicates that rotation is perturbed by an inward radial flow in the SB ring and the bar region. However, the gas kinematics from r ∼ 50 pc out to r ∼ 400 pc reveal a massive (Mmol ∼ 2:7+0:9 1:2 × 107 M) outflow in all molecular tracers. The tight correlation between the ionized gas outflow, the radio jet, and the occurrence of outward motions in the disk suggests that the outflow is AGN driven. Conclusions. The molecular outflow is likely launched when the ionization cone of the narrow line region sweeps the nuclear disk. The outflow rate estimated in the CND, dM=dt ∼ 63+21 37 M yr1, is an order of magnitude higher than the star formation rate at these radii, confirming that the outflow is AGN driven. The power of the AGN is able to account for the estimated momentum and kinetic luminosity of the outflow. The CND mass load rate of the CND outflow implies a very short gas depletion timescale of ≤1 Myr. The CND gas reservoir is likely replenished on longer timescales by efficient gas inflow from the outer disk. © ESO 2014.

Galaxies: Seyfert

Galaxies: nuclei

Radio lines: galaxies

Galaxies: ISM

Galaxies: kinematics and dynamics

Galaxies: individual: NGC 1068


S. G. Burillo

Spanish National Observatory (OAN)

F. Combes

Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)

A. Usero

Spanish National Observatory (OAN)

Susanne Aalto

Chalmers, Earth and Space Sciences, Radio Astronomy and Astrophysics

M. Krips

Université Grenoble Alpes

S. Viti

University College London (UCL)

A. Alonso-Herrero

CSIC-UC - Instituto de Física de Cantabria (IFCA)

L. K. Hunt

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

E. Schinnerer

Max Planck Society

A. J. Baker

Rutgers University

F. Boone

University of Toulouse

V. Casasola

Istituto di Radioastronomia

L. Colina

Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB)

Francesco Costagliola

Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA)

A. Eckart

University of Cologne

A. Fuente

Spanish National Observatory (OAN)

C. Henkel

King Abdulaziz University

Max Planck Society

A. Labiano

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH)

Spanish National Observatory (OAN)

S. Martín

Université Grenoble Alpes

I. Márquez

Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA)

Sebastien Muller

Chalmers, Earth and Space Sciences, Onsala Space Observatory

P. Planesas

Spanish National Observatory (OAN)

C. Ramos Almeida

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

University of La Laguna

M. Spaans

University of Groningen

L. J. Tacconi

Max Planck Society

P.P. van der Werf

Leiden University

Astronomy and Astrophysics

0004-6361 (ISSN) 1432-0746 (eISSN)

Vol. 567 125- A125

Subject Categories

Physical Sciences


Onsala Space Observatory



More information

Latest update

4/1/2021 1