Estimation of copy number aberrations: Comparison of exome sequencing data with SNP microarrays identifies homozygous deletions of 19q13.2 and iin neuroblastoma
Journal article, 2016
In the pediatric cancer neuroblastoma, analysis of recurrent chromosomal aberrations such as loss of chromosome 1p, 11q, gain of 17q and MYCN amplification are used for patient stratification and subsequent therapy decision making. Different analysis techniques have been used for detection of segmental abnormalities, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH)-microarrays and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). However, as next-generation sequencing becomes available for clinical use, this technique could also be used for assessment of copy number alterations simultaneously with mutational analysis. In this study we compare genomic profiles generated through exome sequencing data with profiles generated from high resolution Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays on 30 neuroblastoma tumors of different stages. Normalized coverage reads for tumors were calculated using Control-FREEC software and visualized through a web based Shiny application, prior to comparison with corresponding SNP-microarray data. The two methods show high-level agreement for breakpoints and copy number of larger segmental aberrations and numerical aneuploidies. However, several smaller gene containing deletions that could not readily be detected through the SNP-microarray analyses were identified through exome profiling, most likely due to difference between spatial distribution of microarray probes and targeted regions of the exome capture. These smaller aberrations included focal ATRX deletion in two tumors and three cases of novel deletions in chromosomal region 19q13.2 causing homozygous loss of multiple genes including the CIC (Capicua) gene. In conclusion, genomic profiles generated from normalized coverage of exome sequencing show concordance with SNP microarray generated genomic profiles. Exome sequencing is therefore a useful diagnostic tool for copy number variant (CNV) detection in neuroblastoma tumors, especially considering the combination with mutational screening. This enables detection of theranostic targets such as ALK and ATRX together with detection of significant segmental aneuploidies, such as 2p-gain, 17q-gain, 11q-deletion as well as MYCN amplification.
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