A review of cathode-arc coupling modeling in GTAW
Journal article, 2016

Material properties of welds are strongly influenced by the thermal history, including the thermo-fluid and electromagnetic phenomena in the weld pool and the arc heat source. A necessary condition for arc heat source models to be predictive is to include the plasma column, the cathode, and the cathode layer providing their thermal and electric coupling. Different cathode layer models based on significantly different physical assumptions are being used. This paper summarizes today’s state of the art of cathode layer modeling of refractory cathodes used in GTAW at atmospheric pressure. The fundamentals of the cathode layer and its physics are addressed. The main modeling approaches, namely (i) the diffusion approach, (ii) the partial LTE approach, and (iii) the hydrodynamic approach are discussed and compared. The most relevant publications are systematically categorized with regard to the respective physical phenomena addressed. Results and process understanding gained with these models are summarized. Finally, some open questions are underlined.

GTA Welding- Cathodes- Mathematical models- Tungsten electrodes- Reviews -Simulating Plasma


Alireza Javidi-Shirvan

University West

Isabelle Choquet

University West

Welding in the World, Le Soudage Dans Le Monde

0043-2288 (ISSN)


Areas of Advance


Subject Categories

Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics



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