Parametric oscillators based on superconducting circuits
Book chapter, 2012
A parametric oscillator is an oscillating system in which one of the parameters, typically either the resonance frequency or damping, can be modulated by an external pump. Parametric oscillations can be found in a wide variety of systems including radiofrequency circuits, optical and mechanical systems, and even single electrons in a Penning trap. In recent years, interest in parametric oscillators has revived in many areas of physics, ranging from basic physics to applications. For instance, they are being used as quantum-limited amplifiers in an increasingly large number of experiments in quantum information and computing. At the same time, interest in their basic physics in the quantum regime, in which they are a model system for driven, nonlinear systems, has grown commensurately. This chapter gives a largely self-contained introduction to the theoretical description of the dynamics of parametric oscillators, both classical and quantum, and reviews some of the recent experimental work in superconducting circuits.