Modulation of the nanometer pore size improves magnesium adsorption into mesoporous titania coatings and promotes bone morphogenic protein 4 expression in adhering osteoblasts
Journal article, 2016
Objective. Mesoporous (MP) titania films used as implant coatings have recently been considered as release systems for controlled administration of magnesium to enhance initial osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Tuning of the pore size in such titania films is aimed at increasing the osteogenic potential through effects on the total loading capacity and the release profile of magnesium. Methods. In this study, evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) was used with different structure-directing agents to form three mesoporous films with average pore sizes of 2 nm (MP1), 6 nm (MP2) and 7 nm (MP3). Mg adsorption and release was monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The film surfaces were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of different Mg release on osteogenesis was investigated in human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) using pre-designed osteogenesis arrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. Results showed a sustained release from all the films investigated, with higher magnesium adsorption into MP1 and MP3 films. No significant differences were observed in the surface nanotopography of the films, either with or without the presence of magnesium. MP3 films (7 nm pore size) had the greatest effect on osteogenesis, up-regulating 15 bone-related genes after 1 week of hFOB growth and significantly promoting bone morphogenic protein (BMP4) expression after 3 weeks of growth. Significance. The findings indicate that the increase in pore width on the nano scale significantly enhanced the bioactivity of the mesoporous coating, thus accelerating osteogenesis without creating differences in surface roughness.
Mesoporous titania films