Polarization-Independent Phase-Sensitive Amplification
Journal article, 2016
We thoroughly analyze the requirements on the signal and idler state of polarizations (SOPs) for achieving maximum amplification in phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs). These requirements are described using a Jones-space description as well as a Stokes-space description. Our analysis includes the cases of polarization-diverse and vector PSAs, and in each type of PSA, we also consider the signal-degenerate and the non-degenerate schemes. We observe that the relation between the signal and idler SOPs to achieve maximum phase-sensitive (PS) amplification can be described similarly in polarization-diverse and in vector PSAs. Moreover, both types of PSAs are polarization-dependent, which means that PSAs do require polarization-tracking schemes when being implemented in a realistic optical-transmission scenario. We therefore evaluate how polarization tracking of the signal and the idler SOPs can overcome the theoretical polarization dependence of both polarization-diverse and vector PSAs. We find that only one polarization tracker for either the signal or idler SOP is necessary for achieving polarization-independent PS amplification when considering the general case of dual-polarization (DP) modulated signals. This polarization tracker requires the control of three degrees of freedom which describe a general polarization rotation. For single-polarization (SP) modulated signals, the polarization tracker can rotate both the signal and the idler SOPs simultaneously which eliminates the need for splitting the signal and the idler before the PSA. Moreover, only two degrees of freedom for the polarization tracker are necessary in this case. When considering degenerate schemes, a polarization tracker with two degrees of freedom is sufficient to achieve maximum PS amplification of DP binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signals in both vector and polarization diverse PSAs. For the case of SP-BPSK signals, a polarization-diverse PSA can perform polarization-independent amplification by controlling the relative phase between the pumps, whereas a polarization tracker with only one degree of freedom is necessary in the case of vector PSAs.
Optical fiber communication
phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs)