Review of port-city interactions, keynote speech
Conference contribution, 2016
The benefits of ports as vital elements of global transport systems are undisputed and widely covered in the scientific literature, but the fact that costs and benefits are asymmetrically dis-tributed is less often addressed. The purpose is to inventory port-city interface literature, define port-city development stages and analyse how the port affects the surrounding city. The generations or stages are denoted First – Land-sea interface; Second - Expanding industrial and commercial centre; Third - Logistics node and Fourth – Distributed terminals. The ways, in which the presence of a port affects a city is structured along economic, environmental and social sustainability. The discussion takes a Middle and Low Income Country perspective, with a focus on Mombasa, Kenya, and it is summarised in a table.