1D-3D coupling for hydraulic system transient simulations
Journal article, 2017
This work describes a coupling between the 1D method of characteristics (MOC) and the 3D finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The coupling method is applied to compressible flow in hydraulic systems. The MOC code is implemented as a set of boundary conditions in the OpenFOAM open source CFD software. The coupling is realized by two linear equations originating from the characteristics equation and the Riemann constant equation, respectively. The coupling method is validated using three simple water hammer cases and several coupling configurations. The accuracy and robustness are investigated with respect to the mesh size ratio across the interface and to 3D flow features close to the interface. The method is finally applied to the transient flow caused by the closing and opening of a knife valve (gate) in a pipe, where the flow is driven by the difference in free surface elevation between two tanks. A small region surrounding the moving gate is resolved by CFD, using a dynamic mesh library, while the rest of the system is modeled by MOC. Minor losses are included in the 1D region, corresponding to the contraction of the flow from the upstream tank into the pipe, a separate stationary flow regulation valve, and a pipe bend. The results are validated with experimental data. A 1D solution is provided for comparison, using the static gate characteristics obtained from steady-state CFD simulations.