Three-Dimensional Wiring for Extensible Quantum Computing: The Quantum Socket
Journal article, 2016
Quantum computing architectures are on the verge of scalability, a key requirement for the implementation of a universal quantum computer. The next stage in this quest is the realization of quantum error-correction codes, which will mitigate the impact of faulty quantum information on a quantum computer. Architectures with ten or more quantum bits (qubits) have been realized using trapped ions and superconducting circuits. While these implementations are potentially scalable, true scalability will require systems engineering to combine quantum and classical hardware. One technology demanding imminent efforts is the realization of a suitable wiring method for the control and the measurement of a large number of qubits. In this work, we introduce an interconnect solution for solid-state qubits: the quantum socket. The quantum socket fully exploits the third dimension to connect classical electronics to qubits with higher density and better performance than two-dimensional methods based on wire bonding. The quantum socket is based on spring-mounted microwires-the three-dimensional wires-that push directly on a microfabricated chip, making electrical contact. A small wire cross section (approximately 1 mm), nearly nonmagnetic components, and functionality at low temperatures make the quantum socket ideal for operating solid-state qubits. The wires have a coaxial geometry and operate over a frequency range from dc to 8 GHz, with a contact resistance of approximately 150 m Omega, an impedance mismatch of approximately 10 Omega, and minimal cross talk. As a proof of principle, we fabricate and use a quantum socket to measure high-quality superconducting resonators at a temperature of approximately 10 mK. Quantum error-correction codes such as the surface code will largely benefit from the quantum socket, which will make it possible to address qubits located on a two-dimensional lattice. The present implementation of the socket could be readily extended to accommodate a quantum processor with a (10 x 10)-qubit lattice, which would allow for the realization of a simple quantum memory.