Toward Safer Energy Storage Solution by Development of Fluorine-Free Battery Electrolyte
Licentiate thesis, 2017

Portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops, cameras and electronic vehicles (EVs) which contain lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), are indispensable part of our modern society. The safety of conventional electrolytes of LIBs, composed of fluorinated lithium salts and organic solvents is the source of some concerns. While the former is meta-stable at room temperature, quite expensive to synthesis and unsafe in the presence of moisture, the latter have high vapor pressure and are also flammable. Therefore, development of more stable salts and electrolytes are highly desirable, especially in the light of increased use of battery technology in e.g. electric vehicles (EVs). In order to mitigate the challenges with current fluorine containing electrolytes, we set out to develop a new class of safer, fluorine-free anions based on the concept of pseudo-delocalized Mickey MouseTM anions. Their Lithium and sodium salts have been synthesized for the first time, and fully characterized by different analytical methods such as NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray crystallography were conducted to reveal both basic properties in terms of thermal stability and solubility of the salts. To further assess their properties as electrolytes, ion conductivity and electrochemical stability windows (ESWs) were performed.

sodium-ion batteries (SIBs)

aqueous electrolyte

lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)

safer electrolyte

fluorine-free salt


Elham Hosseini Bab Anari

Chalmers, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry

Subject Categories

Inorganic Chemistry

Chemical Engineering

Materials Chemistry

Other Chemical Engineering

Chemical Sciences

Areas of Advance


Materials Science


Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory



More information


4/4/2017 8