Magnesium release from mesoporous carriers on endosseus implants does not influence bone maturation at 6 weeks in rabbit bone
Journal article, 2017
ObjectivesThe release of magnesium ions (Mg2+) from titanium surfaces has been shown to boost the initial biological response of peri-implant bone and to increase the biomechanical strength of osseointegration. The objective of the present paper was to investigate if the initial improvement in osseointegration would influence the bone remodeling also during the maturation stage of bone healing. Methods: Titanium implants were coated with mesoporous titania layers and either loaded with Mg2+ (test group) or left untreated (control group). The implants were inserted in the tibiae of 10 New Zealand White rabbits. Osseointegration was assessed after 6 weeks by means of biomechanical testing (RTQ), non-decalcified histology and histomorphometry (BIC%, BA%, NBA%). The expression of genes involved in the bone formation and remodeling was quantified using qPCR. Results: Mg2+ releasing mesoporous titania coatings showed, on average, higher removal torques and histomorphometrical outcomes (RTQ: 17.2 Ncm vs. 15 Ncm; BIC: 38.8% vs. 32.1%; BA%: 71.6% vs. 64%; NBA% 62.5% vs. 54% for the tests vs the controls); however, the differences were not statistically significant. Three osteogenic markers, osteocalcin (OC), collagen 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1), and alkalin phosphatase (ALPL), were respectively 2-fold, 1.53-fold, and 1.13-fold up-regulated in the control group compared to the test. The expression of COL1A1 was particularly high in both groups, while the biomarkers for remodeling and inflammation showed a low expression in both groups. Significance: The results suggested that the initial enhancement in osseointegration induced by magnesium release from mesoporous titania coatings has no detrimental effects during bone maturation.