Chemical vapor deposition of TiN on transition metal substrates
Journal article, 2018
The growth of chemical vapor deposited TiN from a reaction gas mixture of TiCl 4 , N 2 and H 2 was investigated on three different transition metal substrates: Fe, Co and Ni at deposition temperatures ranging from 850 °C to 950 °C. The interactions between the substrate metals and the gas phase were investigated using thermodynamic calculations. The TiN coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of TiN on Co substrates resulted in dense, columnar coatings of single phase TiN. The activation energy for TiN deposition on Co was determined to be 90 kJ/mol. CVD of TiN on Fe substrates caused severe substrate corrosion by the formation of gaseous FeCl x . Due to the substrate corrosion, the activation energy could not be determined. Furthermore, it was found that CVD of TiN on Ni substrates produced a phase mixture of TiN and Ni 3 Ti. Formation of Ni 3 Ti could be minimized by decreasing the H 2 partial pressure and increasing the N 2 partial pressure. Deposition on Ni yielded two different activation energies, 40 kJ/mol in the temperature interval 850 °C to 900 °C and 165 kJ/mol in the interval 900 °C to 950 °C. This is an indication of two different types of process control, which were identified as Ni diffusion into the growing film and a gas phase processes. The results of the present study showed that CVD of TiN on a cemented carbide using Fe and Ni in the binder phase, must be optimized in order to avoid corrosion or unwanted phases. Methods to achieve this are presented in this paper.
Alternate binder phase