Vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry compared to amperometric exocytosis measurements
Journal article, 2017
Three new tools are discussed for understanding chemical communication between cells and primarily to delve into the content and structure of nanometer transmitter vesicles. These are amperometric measurements of exocytosis, vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry, and intracellular vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry. These are combining in the end nanoscale mass spectrometry imaging to begin determination of vesicle structure. These methods have provided solid evidence for the concept of open and closed exocytosis leading to partial release of the vesicle content during normal exocytosis. They have also been used to discover cases where the fraction of transmitter released is not changed, and other cases where the vesicle transmitter fraction released is altered, as with zinc, thought to alter cognition. Overall, the combination of these methods is showing us details of vesicular processes that would not be measureable without these micro and nano electrochemical methods.