Critical evaluation of the stability of highly concentrated LiTFSI - Acetonitrile electrolytes vs. graphite, lithium metal and LiFePO4 electrodes
Journal article, 2018
Highly concentrated LiTFSI - acetonitrile electrolytes have recently been shown to stabilize graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) much better than comparable more dilute systems. Here we revisit this system in order to optimise the salt concentration vs. both graphite and lithium metal electrodes with respect to electrochemical stability. However, we observe an instability regardless of concentration, making lithium metal unsuitable as a counter electrode, and this also affects evaluation of e.g. graphite electrodes. While the highly concentrated electrolytes have much improved electrochemical stabilities, their reductive decomposition below ca. 1.2 V vs. Li + /Li° still makes them less practical vs. graphite electrodes, and the oxidative reaction with Al at ca. 4.1 V vs. Li + /Li° makes them problematic for high voltage LIB cells. The former originates in an insufficiently stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) dissolving and continuously reforming – causing self-discharge, as observed by paused galvanostatic cycling, while the latter is likely caused by aluminium current collector corrosion. Yet, we show that medium voltage LiFePO 4 positive electrodes can successfully be used as counter and reference electrodes.
Highly concentrated electrolyte