Adherence to dietary recommendations for Swedish adults across categories of greenhouse gas emissions from food
Journal article, 2017

Objective To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults. Design Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored. Setting Sweden. Subjects Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years. Results Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively. Conclusions The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.


Climate change

Nutrient intake

Greenhouse gas emissions

Dietary recommendations


Camilla Sjörs

Karolinska Institutet

Fredrik Hedenus

Chalmers, Energy and Environment, Physical Resource Theory

A. Sjolander

Karolinska Institutet

Annika Tillander

Karolinska Institutet

K. Balter

Mälardalens högskola

Karolinska Institutet

Stanford University

Public Health Nutrition

1368-9800 (ISSN) 1475-2727 (eISSN)

Vol. 20 18 3381-3393

Subject Categories

Food Science

Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine

Nutrition and Dietetics





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