Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for morphine detection based on electrochemically exfoliated graphene oxide. Application in screening tests of urine samples
Journal article, 2019
Graphene oxide modified screen-printed electrodes have been tested as amperometric sensors for morphine determination. The results demonstrate that the arising of electrocatalytic processes ascribable to the graphene coating, combined with the use of a suitable cleaning procedure, allow the sensor to achieve higher sensitivity (2.61 nA ppb−1) and lower limit of detection (2.5 ppb) with respect to those reported in the literature for similar devices.
Due to very low detection limit found, the device is suitable to detect the presence of morphine in urine samples after a very simple and rapid pre-treatment of the matrix, allowing the removal of interfering species affecting the voltammetric responses. Tests performed in synthetic urine samples demonstrate that the presence of the electrocatalytic coating is mandatory in resolving the peak due to morphine oxidation in respect to uric acid. The sensor proposed is, thus, suitable to detect this drug even at concentration values below the cut-off levels defined by European and American regulations. These results allow us to propose the sensor for screening tests in portable devices, to be applied in systematic controls of drug abuses, e.g. in drivers and in men at work