The role of zonal flows in reactive fluid closures
Journal article, 2018
© 2018 Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing. We will give an overview of results obtained by our reactive fluid model. It is characterised as a fluid model where all moments with sources in the experiment are kept. Furthermore, full account is taken for the highest moments appearing in unexpanded denominators also including full toroidicity. It has been demonstrated that the strength of zonal flows is dramatically larger in reactive fluid closures than in those which involve dissipation. This gives a direct connection between the fluid closure and the level of excitation of turbulence. This is because zonal flows are needed to absorb the inverse cascade in quasi 2D turbulence. This also explains the similarity in structure of the transport coefficients in our model with a reactive closure in the energy equation and models which have a reactive closure because of zero ion temperature such as the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Our exact reactive closure unifies several well-known features of tokamak experiments such as the L-H transition, internal transport barriers and the nonlinear Dimits upshift of the critical gradient for onset of transport. It also gives transport of the same level as that in nonlinear gyrokinetic codes. Since these include the kinetic resonance this confirms the validity of the thermodynamic properties of our model. Furthermore, we can show that while a strongly nonlinear model is needed in kinetic theory a quasilinear model is sufficient in the fluid description. Thus our quasilinear fluid model will be adequate for treating all relevant problems in bulk transport. This is finally confirmed by the reproduction by the model of the experimental power scaling of the confinement time τE∼ P-2/3. This confirms the validity of our reactive fluid model. This also gives credibility to our ITER simulations including the H-mode barrier. A new result is here, that alpha heating strongly reduces the slope of the H-mode barrier. This should significantly reduce the effects of ELM's.