A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL
Journal article, 2018

Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital parameters of a planet to the nature of its parent star. We have little idea whether the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or whether the type of host star drives the physics and chemistry of the planet’s birth, and evolution. ARIEL was conceived to observe a large number (~1000) of transiting planets for statistical understanding, including gas giants, Neptunes, super-Earths and Earth-size planets around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the 1.25–7.8 μm spectral range and multiple narrow-band photometry in the optical. ARIEL will focus on warm and hot planets to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials compared to their colder Solar System siblings. Said warm and hot atmospheres are expected to be more representative of the planetary bulk composition. Observations of these warm/hot exoplanets, and in particular of their elemental composition (especially C, O, N, S, Si), will allow the understanding of the early stages of planetary and atmospheric formation during the nebular phase and the following few million years. ARIEL will thus provide a representative picture of the chemical nature of the exoplanets and relate this directly to the type and chemical environment of the host star. ARIEL is designed as a dedicated survey mission for combined-light spectroscopy, capable of observing a large and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. Transit, eclipse and phase-curve spectroscopy methods, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allow us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of 10–100 part per million (ppm) relative to the star and, given the bright nature of targets, also allows more sophisticated techniques, such as eclipse mapping, to give a deeper insight into the nature of the atmosphere. These types of observations require a stable payload and satellite platform with broad, instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect many molecular species, probe the thermal structure, identify clouds and monitor the stellar activity. The wavelength range proposed covers all the expected major atmospheric gases from e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4 NH3, HCN, H2S through to the more exotic metallic compounds, such as TiO, VO, and condensed species. Simulations of ARIEL performance in conducting exoplanet surveys have been performed – using conservative estimates of mission performance and a full model of all significant noise sources in the measurement – using a list of potential ARIEL targets that incorporates the latest available exoplanet statistics. The conclusion at the end of the Phase A study, is that ARIEL – in line with the stated mission objectives – will be able to observe about 1000 exoplanets depending on the details of the adopted survey strategy, thus confirming the feasibility of the main science objectives.

IR spectroscopy

Space missions

Exoplanets

Molecular signatures

Author

G. Tinetti

University College London (UCL)

P. Drossart

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

P. Eccleston

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

P. Hartogh

Max Planck Institute

Astrid Heske

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

J. Leconte

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux

G. Micela

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

M. Ollivier

Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale

G.L. Pilbratt

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

L. Puig

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Diego Turrini

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

B. Vandenbussche

KU Leuven

Paulina Wolkenberg

Polish Academy of Sciences

J.P. Beaulieu

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Lars A. Buchave

University of Vienna

Martin Ferus

Czech Academy of Sciences

Matt Griffin

Cardiff University

M. Guedel

University of Vienna

Kay Justtanont

Chalmers, Space, Earth and Environment, Astronomy and Plasmaphysics, Galactic Astrophysics

P. O. Lagage

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

Pedro Machado

Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences (IA)

Giuseppe Malaguti

INAF OAS Bologna

M. Min

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

H. U. Norgaard-Nielsen

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Mirek Rataj

Polish Academy of Sciences

Tom Ray

Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies

I. Ribas

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Mark Swain

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Robert Szabo

Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Stephanie Werner

University of Oslo

J. Barstow

University College London (UCL)

Matt Burleigh

University Of Leicester

James Cho

Queen Mary University of London

V. C. du Foresto

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

A. Coustenis

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

L. Decin

KU Leuven

T. Encrenaz

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Marina Galand

Imperial College London

Michaël Gillon

University of Liège

R. Helled

University of Zürich

Juan Carlos Morales

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Antonio García Muñoz

Technische Universität Berlin

Andrea Moneti

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

I. Pagano

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Enzo Pascale

Sapienza University of Rome

Giuseppe Piccioni

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

D. Pinfield

University of Hertfordshire

Subhajit Sarkar

Cardiff University

F. Selsis

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux

Jonathan Tennyson

University College London (UCL)

Amaury Triaud

University of Cambridge

Olivia Venot

University of Paris-Est

Ingo Waldmann

University College London (UCL)

David Waltham

Royal Holloway University of London

G. Wright

Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

J. Amiaux

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

J. L. Augueres

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

Michel Berthé

Queen Mary University of London

Naidu Bezawada

University of Oxford

Georgia Bishop

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Neil Bowles

University of Oxford

Deirdre Coffey

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Josep Colomé

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Martin Crook

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Pierre Elie Crouzet

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Vania Da Peppo

Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies

Isabel Escudero Sanz

European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA ESTEC)

Mauro Focardi

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

Martin Frericks

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Tom Hunt

University College London (UCL)

Ralf Kohley

European Space Operations Centre

Kevin Middleton

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Gianluca Morgante

INAF OAS Bologna

R. Ottensamer

University of Vienna

Emanuele Pace

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

C. Pearson

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

R. Stamper

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Kate Symonds

European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)

M. Rengel

Max Planck Institute

E. Renotte

University of Liège

Peter Ade

Cardiff University

Laura Affer

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Christophe Alard

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Nicole Allard

GEPI - Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation

Francesca Altieri

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Yves André

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Claudio Arena

University College London (UCL)

Ioannis Argyriou

KU Leuven

Alan Aylward

University College London (UCL)

Cristian Baccani

University of Florence

Gaspar Bakos

Princeton University

M. Banaszkiewicz

Polish Academy of Sciences

Mike Barlow

University College London (UCL)

Virginie Batista

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Giancarlo Bellucci

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Serena Benatti

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Pernelle Bernardi

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Bruno Bézard

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Maria Blecka

Polish Academy of Sciences

Emeline Bolmont

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

Bertrand Bonfond

Queen Mary University of London

Rosaria Bonito

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

A. S. Bonomo

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

John Robert Brucato

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

Allan Sacha Brun

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

Ian Bryson

Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Waldemar Bujwan

Polish Academy of Sciences

Sarah Casewell

University Of Leicester

Bejamin Charnay

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Cesare Cecchi Pestellini

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Guo Chen

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

Angela Ciaravella

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Riccardo Claudi

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Rodolphe Clédassou

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Mario Damasso

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Mario Damiano

University College London (UCL)

Camilla Danielski

GEPI - Galaxies, Etoiles, Physique, Instrumentation

P. Deroo

KU Leuven

A. M. di Giorgio

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

C. Dominik

University of Amsterdam

Vanessa Doublier

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Simon Doyle

Cardiff University

René Doyon

Université de Montréal

Benjamin Drummond

University of Exeter

Bastien Duong

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

S. Eales

Cardiff University

Billy Edwards

University College London (UCL)

Maria Farina

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Ettore Flaccomio

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Leigh Fletcher

University Of Leicester

F. Forget

University Paris-Saclay

Steve Fossey

University College London (UCL)

Markus Fränz

Max Planck Institute

Yuka Fujii

ELSI

Álvaro García-Piquer

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

W. K. Gear

Cardiff University

Hervé Geoffray

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Jean Claude Gérard

University of Liège

Lluis Gesa

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

H. L. Gomez

Cardiff University

Rafał Graczyk

Polish Academy of Sciences

C. Griffith

University of Arizona

D. Grodent

University of Liège

Mario Giuseppe Guarcello

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Jacques Gustin

University of Liège

Keiko Hamano

ELSI

P. C. Hargrave

Cardiff University

Yann Hello

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Kevin Heng

University of Bern

Enrique Herrero

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Allan Hornstrup

Technical University of Denmark (DTU)

Benoit Hubert

University of Liège

Shigeru Ida

ELSI

Masahiro Ikoma

Tokyo Institute of Technology

Nicolas Iro

Universität Hamburg

Patrick Irwin

University of Oxford

Christopher Jarchow

Max Planck Institute

Jean Jaubert

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Hugh Jones

University of Hertfordshire

Queyrel Julien

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

Shingo Kameda

Rikkyo University

F. Kerschbaum

University of Vienna

P. Kervella

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

T. Koskinen

University of Arizona

Matthijs Krijger

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Norbert Krupp

Max Planck Institute

Marina Lafarga

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Federico Landini

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

E. Lellouch

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Giuseppe Leto

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Luntzer

University of Vienna

Theresa Rank-Lüftinger

University of Vienna

Antonio Maggio

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

J. Maldonado

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Jean-Pierre Maillard

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

Urs Mall

Max Planck Institute

Jean-Baptiste Marquette

Institut d 'Astrophysique de Paris

S. Mathis

University of Zürich

P. Maxted

Keele University

Taro Matsuo

Osaka University

Alexander Medvedev

Max Planck Institute

Yamila Miguel

Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur

V., Minier

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

Giuseppe Morello

University College London (UCL)

Alessandro Mura

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Norio Narita

University of Tokyo

Valerio Nascimbeni

University of Padua

N. Nguyen Tong

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Vladimiro Noce

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

Fabrizio Oliva

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

E. Palle

Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias

Paul Palmer

Royal Observatory

Maurizio Pancrazzi

University of Florence

Andreas Papageorgiou

Cardiff University

Vivien Parmentier

ELSI

Manuel Perger

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Antonino Petralia

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Stefano Pezzuto

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Ray Pierrehumbert

University of Oxford

Ignazio Pillitteri

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Giampaolo P. Piotto

University of Padua

G. Pisano

Cardiff University

Loredana Prisinzano

Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo Guiseppe S. Vaiana

Aikaterini Radioti

University of Liège

Jean-Michel Réess

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Ladislav Rezac

Max Planck Institute

Marco Rocchetto

University College London (UCL)

Albert Rosich

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Nicoletta Sanna

Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

A. Santerne

Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

G. Savini

University College London (UCL)

Gaetano Scandariato

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Bruno Sicardy

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Carles Sierra

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Giuseppe Sindoni

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

Konrad Skup

Polish Academy of Sciences

I. Snellen

Leiden University

Mateusz Sobiecki

Polish Academy of Sciences

Lauriane Soret

University of Liège

A. Sozzetti

Istituto nazionale di astrofisica (INAF)

A. Stiepen

University of Liège

Antoine Strugarek

The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

Jake Taylor

University of Oxford

William Taylor

Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)

Luca Terenzi

INAF OAS Bologna

Marcell Tessenyi

University College London (UCL)

Angelos Tsiaras

University College London (UCL)

C. Tucker

Cardiff University

Diana Valencia

University of Toronto

Gautam Vasisht

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Allona Vazan

University of Amsterdam

Francesc Vilardell

Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)

Sabrine Vinatier

LESIA - Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique

Serena Viti

University College London (UCL)

R. Waters

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Piotr Wawer

Polish Academy of Sciences

Anna Wawrzaszek

Polish Academy of Sciences

Anthony Whitworth

Cardiff University

Yuk L. Yung

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

Sergey N. Yurchenko

University College London (UCL)

María Rosa Zapatero Osorio

Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB)

Robert Zellem

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Tiziano Zingales

University College London (UCL)

Frans Zwart

Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)

Experimental Astronomy

0922-6435 (ISSN) 1572-9508 (eISSN)

Vol. 46 1 135-209

Subject Categories

Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics

DOI

10.1007/s10686-018-9598-x

More information

Latest update

8/23/2019